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Influence of needle gauge used for venipuncture on measures of hemostasis in cats
Acquired and inherited bleeding disorders are often found in cats, and diagnostic evaluation in these instances commonly includes platelet count, prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time and measurements of fibrinogen and fibrinogen degradation products. A smaller diameter needle exerts higher shear forces as blood is collected, and these forces can activate both platelets and coagulation factors; as a consequence, the result of coagulation variables and platelet count may be altered. However, the risk of post-venipuncture hemorrhage increases as the needle size increases in coagulopathic people. The ideal situation would therefore be to use the smallest needle size that does not affect coagulation testing. There are no evidence-based recommendations in feline medicine, but there have been suggestions in the literature to use 21 G needles. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different needle sizes used to obtain blood via jugular venipuncture in cats on routine measures of hemostasis. Twenty healthy, client-owned cats had blood collected via direct venipuncture from both jugular veins. Sampling of the right and left jugular veins was randomized to be collected with either a 22 G or a 25 G needle, and routine coagulation variables and platelet count were performed on all samples. The authors found no clinically meaningful difference between the two needle gauges in routine coagulation variables or platelet count. Based on these results, both 25 G and 22 G needles can be used for venipuncture for routine coagulation tests and platelet count in cats.

Prevalence of microorganisms associated with feline gingivostomatitis
Feline gingivostomatitis (FGS) is characterised by focal or diffuse chronic inflammation of the oral mucosa and gingiva and its incidence is estimated to be around 6–7% of all cats. As immune responses are present in FGS lesions, it has been proposed that infectious agents are associated with the development of the disease. Viral infections, such as those due to feline immunodeficiency virus, feline leukaemia virus, feline calicivirus (FCV) and feline herpesvirus-1 (FHV-1), might be the cause of FGS. Furthermore, a variety of other bacteria may play an important role in FGS, though few studies have demonstrated this link. This multicenter case-control study aimed to examine the frequency of detection of certain common feline bacteria and viruses to determine any potential associations with FGS. Seventy-two control cats and 32 cats with FGS had oral swabs taken and cultured for bacterial identification, and a PCR assay was carried out to examine the infection of FCV, FHV-1, Chlamydia felis, Mycoplasma felis and Bordetella bronchiseptica. The results of the study showed that the positive rate of FCV was significantly higher in cats with FGS, as found in previous studies. In addition, it was demonstrated that Enterococcus faecalis and anaerobic bacteria were more frequently isolated from oral swab samples of cats with FGS than of control cats. The authors conclude that future studies to further explore the association between anaerobes, E faecalis and FGS are required and, if confirmed to be correct, may offer additional treatment avenues.

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